Artvigil is a generic brand of the drug Armodafinil (Nuvigil, Waklert) manufactured by HAB Pharmaceuticals & Research Ltd. In India.
Each tablet of Artvigil contains 150mg of Armodafinil, which is composed of the (?)-(R)-enantiomer of the popular smart drug Modafinil (Provigil, Modvigil, Modalert).
Generic drugs are identical replications of brand-name drugs with the same pharmaceutical dosage, intended use and potency. Generics tend to be significantly cheaper than brand-name drugs.
Armodafinil is an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness linked to narcolepsy and shift work sleep disorder. It is prescribed as an adjuvant therapy for obstructive sleep apnea.
It is also used off-label in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is so
In comparison to Modafinil, Artvigil is believed to have a longer duration of efficacy in the human body and to have a more rapid onset of effects. A smaller dosage is required to achieve the same positive effects on memory and mental alertness.
How Does Artvigil Work?
Artvigil is composed of the (R)-enantiomer of the pharmaceutical drug Modafinil (Provigil). The standard Modafinil drug contains an equal mixture of R-(?)- and (S)-(+)-modafinil), but research shows that it is only the (R)- version that is effective.
In pharmacology, enantiomers refer to different chiral forms of a molecule. Two molecules might have the same chemical structure, but based on their orientation, they may have different effects on the body and bind differently to receptors. 
This is the case with the R-(?)- and (S)-(+)- enantiomers of Modafinil. Because the physiological effects of this drug are attributed to the (R)- form, an enantiopure version of this compound was introduced to the market to improve potency and reliability.
Armodafinil requires a smaller dosage than modafinil, is reported to start working faster and has a duration of effects of between 6-12 hours, which is longer than for modafinil. Other than the pharmacodynamic differences, the pharmacological effects are similar.
Researchers have not yet fully identified the mechanism of action involved in Artvigil’s effects. Studies show that it binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT), which is a protein found on the membrane of neurons that pumps dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the cell.
By binding to the dopamine transporter, Artvigil blocks the re-uptake of dopamine into the cytosol. This results in more dopamine being present in the synaptic cleft.
This indirectly causes greater activation of dopamine receptors as the neurotransmitter chemical is given greater opportunity to activate receptors on the post-synaptic neuron. Dopamine is linked to mood regulation, thinking, planning behavior, motivation, attentional control and executive function.
Not all of the effects of Artvigil are mediated by dopamine receptors. When modafinil was administered alongside dopamine receptor antagonist drug called haloperidol in rats, an increase in locomotor activity was still observed.
Other neurological systems that may be affected by armodafinil and modafinil include the orexin system and histamine receptors. More studies are needed to better understand its mechanism of action.